Irrespective of the type of application or industry, centrifugal pumps are one of the most common types of industrial pumps. Despite their popularity, not many users know the application, working, and types of centrifugal pumps. Here, in this guide, we give you the complete picture of centrifugal pumps. Let’s dive in right away.
What are Centrifugal Pumps?
Just like all other pumps, centrifugal pumps handle large amounts of liquids. It helps in the displacement of a wide variety of liquids and offers extremely high-flow rates.
Generally, these pumps are used for transporting liquids that have low viscosity – like water or lighter oils. Liquids with viscosities ranging from 680F – 700F require centrifugal pumps with extra horsepower.
3 Main Components of Centrifugal Pumps
Suction & Delivery Pipes
Working of Centrifugal Pumps
Let’s understand the working of centrifugal pumps by dividing them into different sections:
This is the first step in the operation of a centrifugal pump. Priming is the process in which the suction pipe casing and the position of the liquid are prepared for pumping. Priming drives out all air left inside the pump. In a centrifugal pump, the pressured generated by the impeller is directly proportional to the density of the fluid that is to be pumped.
Closing of the Delivery Valve
Once the pump is primed, the delivery valve is closed with an internal valve. An electric motor rotates the impeller, and the delivery valve is kept closed to reduce pressure generated. The valve is opened when the liquid reaches the inner casing, and the pressure generated causes the liquid to flow in an outward direction.
The action of Vacuum in the Suction Pipe
The liquid flow in the previous step causes the vanes of the impeller to rotate at high velocity. This causes a vacuum which triggers the centrifugal action. The liquid rushes through the sump to the suction pipe to the eye of the impeller. The impeller then lifts liquid to the required height via the delivery pipe.
Thus, the liquid flows out through the delivery pipe at the required velocity.
Types of Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal pumps can be classified based on different factors like design, construction, application, industry, service type, etc.
Here, we take a look at the different types of centrifugal pumps based on the number of impellers used in the pump design:
1. Single Stage Pump
As the name implies, it has a single impeller. The design and maintenance of the single-stage centrifugal pump are quite simple. These pumps are perfect for generating huge-flow rates. They work well in low-pressure conditions. Single-stage pumps are mainly used in applications that require high flow and low to moderate TDH (Total Dynamic Head).
2. Two-Stage Pump
These pumps have two impellers that work side by side. It is mainly used for applications that require moderate TDH.
3. Multi-Stage Pump
Multi-stage centrifugal pumps have more than two impellers that are connected in series. It is mainly used for applications that require high TDH.
Now, coming to the big question,
Why do most industries choose Centrifugal Pumps?
Centrifugal pumps have many advantages like:
Do not pump out harmful fluids as by-products
Motor and the pump are separated, thereby reducing heat transfer
Centrifugal pumps generate low-friction, making them low-maintenance and durable
Application of Centrifugal Pumps – Where are they used?
It’s used in a wide variety of applications like – food processing, beverage making, cosmetic factories, dairy farms, pharmaceutical industries, wine-making, paper making, chemical industries, and more. Based on the application requirements, industry, and viscosity of the transported liquid, the right model of the centrifugal pump is used.
Here are some of the common applications of centrifugal pumps:
For City Water Supply
Centrifugal pumps are ideal for applications that do not require high suction. It’s ideal for overhead tank systems. It can be used in applications that require a suction lift.
For best suction results, centrifugal pumps are paired with a foot valve for efficient functioning.
For Boosting Water Pressure
Centrifugal pumps also act as booster pumps. These pumps take in pressure from the main water outlet and increase the pressure to drive it further. When centrifugal pumps are used as booster pumps, it can run continuously or powered periodically, depending on the type of application.
To Pump Water in Industrial and Domestic Applications
Centrifugal pumps work well with reservoirs that do not require a suction lift of more than 22 feet. If used in wells that require a higher suction lift, centrifugal pumps need to be coupled with strong electric motors to generate water at a uniform rate.
To Assist in Fire Protection
Most fire-engines have centrifugal pumps to pump water at high flow rates. In this application, a single-stage or multi-stage centrifugal pump can be used depending on the requirement.
For Sump Drainage
Vertical or horizontal centrifugal sump pumps are used in most sewage treatment plants. Vertical centrifugal pumps have a submerged impeller and a pit-mounted motor.
Wrapping Up – Choose the Right Centrifugal Pump
Versatility, flexibility, wide range of choices and easy maintenance centrifugal pumps are the right fit for your industrial or domestic applications. As leading centrifugal pump manufacturers, Sintech offers a wide range of pumps that fit all applications.
Why choose Centrifugal Pumps from Sintech?
Our pumps can be installed vertically or horizontally, depending on the application. All centrifugal pumps from Sintech, leading centrifugal pump suppliers, are heavy-duty, meaning they can withstand corrosive and abrasive fluids. Our range is designed by ISO 2858/ISO 5199 standards, making them perfectly suitable for all industrial and chemical processing applications.
Our pumps come with a back pull-out design that allows for quick access to rotating parts without disturbing the other parts like the suction and delivery pipes, the electric motor, and more. With high efficiency, you can be sure that a centrifugal pump from Sintech will last for years to come without any trouble.
Click here to download our centrifugal pump manual and get in touch with our team for all inquiries.